(Re)claiming an activist identity as criticalmathematics educators: addressing anti-black racism because #BlackLivesMatter


  • Paula Groves Price Washington State University
  • Roxanne Moore Washington State University

Palabras clave:

Criticalmathematics education, Critical race theory, Antiracism, #BlackLivesMatter, #BlackMindsMatte, Educación Matemática Crítica, Teoría Racial Crítica, Antiracismo, #BlackMindsMatter



In the 8th annual meeting of the International Mathematics Education and Society (MES-8), Martin (2015) asked the critical question, “where does critical mathematics education stand, and demonstrate unequivocal action, against anti-black racism, racial terror, and global white supremacy?” This question marked a call to action for criticalmathematics educators to think not only about the liberatory and emancipatory possibilities of mathematics education, but to specifically address race and racism more explicitly as a field. Using Powell’s (2012) “futuristic definition” of a criticalmathematics educator as mathematician, educator, and activist, the authors argue that while criticalmathematics educators have successfully pushed educators to consider improved pedagogical strategies for greater equity, more social action is needed to fight racism. The authors advocate for greater attention to Martin’s call to action and the need for criticalmathematics educators to actively and explicitly engage in more unequivocal action against global white supremacy and anti-black racism. 


Durante el 8vo Encuentro Internacional Matemáticas Educación y Sociedad (MES-8), Martin (2015) planteó una cuestión fundamental, “¿En dónde se posiciona la educación matemática crítica y demuestra acción inequívoca contra el racismo anti-negro, el terror racial y la supremacía blanca global? Esta pregunta marca un llamado a la acción para los educadores matemáticos críticos a pensar no solamente en las posibilidades liberadoras y emancipadoras de la educación matemática, sino de abordar de manera más explícita y específicamente la raza y el racismo. Usando la “definición futurista” de Powell (2012) de educador matemático crítico como matemático, educador y activista, las autoras plantean que aunque los educadores matemáticos críticos han conducido exitosamente a que los educadores consideren mejores estrategias pedagógicas para alcanzar una mayor equidad, es necesaria más acción social para luchar contra el racismo. Las autoras abogan por una mayor atención al llamado a la acción que hizo Martin y a la necesidad de que los educadores matemáticos críticos se involucren activa y explícitamente en más acciones inequívocas en contra de la supremacía blanca global y el racismo anti-negro


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Paula Groves Price, Washington State University

PhD, Washington State University, Pullman, USA

Roxanne Moore, Washington State University

PhD Student, Washington State University, Pullman, USA


About Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blacklivesmatter.com/about/

Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Olson, L. (2014). The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth, and the Transition to Adulthood. The American Sociological Association, Rose Series in Sociology. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. https://www.russellsage.org/publications/long-shadow

Alexander, K., & Olson, L. (2014). Urban poverty, in black and white. CNN Political OpEds. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/11/opinion/alexander-olsonpoor-urban-whites/

Amnesty International. (2016). Brazil 2015/2016. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/americas/brazil/report-brazil/

Amnesty International. (2015). You Killed My Son: Killings by Military Police in Rio de Janeiro. London, UK.

Applebaum, B. (2010). Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Associated Press. (2014). Brazil: Police Killed 11,000 People Over Five-Year Period, Report Says. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/12/world/americas/brazil-police-killed-11000people-over-five-year-period-report-says.html

Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematical enculturation: A cultural perspective on mathematics education. Dordrecht. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Chasmar, J. (2016). Black Lives Matter event canceled at Seattle elementary school due to security threat. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/sep/16/black-lives-matter-eventcanceled-at-seattle-eleme/

Cohen, S. (2014). The Black Lives Matter Movement Is Resonating in Colombia. Vice: United States. Retrieved from http://www.vice.com/read/the-black-lives-mattermovement-is-resonating-in-colombia-1223

D’Ambrosio, U. (1985). Ethnomathematics and its place in the history and pedagogy of mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 5(1), 44-48.

D’Ambrosio, U. (2007). Peace, social justice and ethnomathematics. International Perspectives on Social Justice in Mathematics Education, 1, 37.

Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory. An introduction. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Dixson, A., & Rousseau, C. (2006). And we are still not saved: Critical race theory in education ten years later. In A. D. Dixson, & C. K. Rousseau, (Eds.). Critical race theory in education: All god’s children got a song. New York, NY: Routledge.

Ernest, P. (1991). The philosophy of mathematics education. London, UK: Falmer Press.

Ernest, P. (1995). Values, gender and images of mathematics: A philosophical perspective. International Journal for Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 26(3), 449-462.

Ernest, P. (1998). Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Ernest, P. (2010). The scope and limits of critical mathematics education. In H. Alrø, O. Ravn, P. Valero, & O. Skovsmose (Eds.), Critical mathematics education: Past, present and future : Festschrift for Ole Skovsmose. Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

Esmonde, I., & Caswell, B. (2010). Teaching Mathematics for Social Justice in Multicultural, Multilingual Elementary Classrooms. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 10(3), 244–254.

Frankenstein, M. (1983). Critical mathematics education: An application of Paulo Freire's epistemology. Journal of Education, 165(4), 315-339.

Frankenstein, M. (2010). Critical Mathematics Education: An Application of Paulo Freire’s Epistemology. Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal, 25.

Freelon, K. (2016). Fighting a Black “Genocide” in Brazil. Retrieved from http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2016/02/fighting_a_black_genocide_in_bra zil/

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., & Sagara, E. (2014). Deadly Force, in Black and White: A ProPublica analysis of killings by police shows outsize risk for young black males. Retrieved from https://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white

Greer, B., Mukhopadhyay, S., Powell, A. B., & Nelson-Barber, S. (Eds.). (2009). Culturally Responsive Mathematics Education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Guiding Principles of Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blacklivesmatter.com/guiding-principles/

Gutiérrez, R. (2008). Framing equity: Helping students “play the game” and “change the game.” Noticias deTODOS: News from TODOS: Mathematics for ALL, 4(1), 2–3.

Gutstein, E. (2003). Teaching and learning mathematics for social justice in an urban, Latino school. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37–73.

Gutstein, E. (2007). “And That’s Just How It Starts”: Teaching Mathematics and Developing Student Agency. The Teachers College Record, 109(2), 420–448.

Gutstein, E. (2012). Mathematics as a weapon in the struggle. In O. Skovsmose, & B. Greer (Eds.), Opening the cage (pp. 23-48). Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.

Haymes, S. N. (2002). Race, pedagogy, and Paulo Freire. Philosophy of Education Archive, 0(0),151-159.

Hernández, T. K. (2013). Racial Subordination in Latin America: The Role of the State, Customary Law, and the New Civil Rights Response. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herstory Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blacklivesmatter.com/herstory/

Jones-de Oliviera, K. F. (2003). The Politics of Culture or the Culture of Politics: AfroBrazilian Mobilization, 1920-1968. Journal of Third World Studies, 20(1), 103– 120.

Kinchloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy primer (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Peter

Lang Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education?. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-24.

Leonard, J., Brooks, W., Barnes-Johnson, J., & Berry III, R. Q. (2010). The Nuances and complexities of teaching mathematics for cultural relevance and social justice. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(3), 261-270.

Mandel, E. (2016). Seattle school cancels event after security threat, BLM controversy. Retrieved from http://mynorthwest.com/393527/john-muir-teachers-black-livesmatter/

Martin, D. B. (2000). Mathematics success and failure among African American youth: The roles of sociohistorical context, community forces, school influence, and individual agency. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Martin, D. B. (2007). Mathematics learning and participation in African-American context: The co-construction of identity in two intersecting realms of experience. In N. Nasir & P. Cobb (Eds.), Diversity, equity, and access to mathematical ideas (pp. 146158). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Martin, D. B. (2012). Learning Mathematics while Black. Educational Foundations, 26, 47–66.

Martin, D. B. (2015). What Could Critical Mathematics Education Mean for Different Groups of Students? A Critical Response [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at the 8th Mathematics Education and Society Conference, Portland, OR.

Mills, C. W. (1997). The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Mills, C. W. (1998). Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Nasir, N. (2013). Power, identity, and mathematical practices outside and inside school. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(1), 264-287.

Powell, A. B. (2012). The historical development of criticalmathematics education. In D.W. Stinson & A. A. Wager (Eds.), Teaching mathematics for social justice: Conversations with educators. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Price, P. G., & Mencke, P. D. (2013). Critical pedagogy and praxis with Native youth: Cultivating change through participatory action research. Education Foundations, 27(3), 85-102.

Powell, A. B., & Frankenstein, M. (Eds.) (1997). Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in mathematics education. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Rahier, J. M. (1999). Body politics in black and white: Señoras, Mujeres, Blanqueamiento and Miss Esmeraldas 1997–1998, Ecuador. Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory, 11(1), 103–120.

Rethinking Schools. (2015). Black Students’ Lives Matter: Building the school to justice pipeline. Rethinking Schools, 29(3). Retrieved from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/29_03/edit293.shtml

Sawyer, M. Q., & Paschel, T. S. (2007). “WE DIDN’T CROSS THE COLOR LINE, THE COLOR LINE CROSSED US”: Blackness and Immigration in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 4(2), 303–315.

Skovsmose, O. (1994). Towards a philosophy of critical mathematics education. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.

Stinson, D. W. (2004). Mathematics as “gate-keeper”(?): Three theoretical perspectives that aim toward empowering all children with a key to the gate. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/msit_facpub/19/

Swaby, N. (2016). Seattle teachers cancel Black Lives Matter demonstration. Retrieved from http://www.king5.com/news/local/elementary-school-teachers-will-wearblack-lives-matter-shirts -next-week/316392576

Taylor, E. (2009). Foundations of Critical Race Theory in Education: An Introduction. In Taylor, E., Gillborn, D., & Ladson-Billings, G. (Eds.), Foundations of Critical Race Theory in Education (pp. 1-13). New York: Routledge.

Telles, E. E. (2004). Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. Princeton University Press.

Williams, L. (2014). 21 things you can’t do while black. Retrieved from http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/02/21-things-you-cant-do-while-black

Yancy, G. (2013). Walking While Black in the “White Gaze.” Retrieved from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/01/walking-while-black-in-the-whitegaze/

Zamudio, M., Russell, C., Rios, F., & Bridgeman, J. L. (2011). Critical race theory matters: Education and ideology. New York, NY: Routledge.



Cómo citar

Groves Price, P., & Moore, R. (2017). (Re)claiming an activist identity as criticalmathematics educators: addressing anti-black racism because #BlackLivesMatter. Revista Latinoamericana De Etnomatemática Perspectivas Socioculturales De La Educación Matemática, 9(3), 77-98. Recuperado a partir de https://www.revista.etnomatematica.org/index.php/RevLatEm/article/view/334



Artículos de reflexión